The Answer To Everything

22 May








Hello, The Map ThinkerTM here.

Haven’t posted From Under The Tree in a long while. Other projects going on.

The reason for this post is because I replied to a question about politics the following way, “The answer to everything is in the event that happens. If it hasn’t happened yet, or if it never happens, there is no answer.”

I was told RL (real life) not on Facebook, that my reply was stupid and made no sense.

Well, I won’t defend the intelligence of my reply but I will show it makes sense. That is if you have the time. If you don’t I understand. Making sense is tedious and not nearly as stimulating as, say, watching porn.

The post I replied to postulated what would happen if a certain candidate won the election. They would be in a position to appoint several Supreme Court Justices over the following 8 years. Those Justices could easily effect the legal system for the next 50 years. A scary thought when you think it through. The post attempted to persuade people who stated they would vote a certain way for certain reasons that they should consider the potential effect on the long-term future.

So we draw a map and see what happens.

In one corner we place voters. Any group that all agree they should cast their vote for a certain person for a certain reason. What they are agreeing on doesn’t matter. Let us say they all agree they should vote for Alfred E. Newman because he is the only candidate that makes sense. At least compared to all the other candidates.

The sad fact is that the more important the issue the less apt people are to voice their true thoughts and the more apt they are to say whatever the group they belong to will agree with. In a group of ten people one or two of the strongest will voice an opinion: One or two of the weakest willed, most easily influenced, will agree with them, and the remaining six to eight will quickly go with what they see as the majority.

To make it worse those who want to be the leaders of their little group of ten will be good at spotting the opinion their group will most easily flow to and voicing it. Thus, as you can see, it is easy to have this little group of ten people, or even an entire congregation, loudly spouting beliefs and reasons that not a single one of them believe in.

Having any discussion with these people about who they are going to vote for or why is a waste of your time and theirs because they do not intend to vote the way they say they are and they intend to do so for an entirely different set of reasons than you are addressing.

Then there is that wild card, the last-minute change of heart. Happens to everybody. All day long you have intended to go straight home. But at the last second you pull into Wally World, or A Local Bar, or an old friend’s house. There are people who will blink at the ballot they just filled out and wonder, “What the hell did I just do? And why?” And they may never receive an answer.

The upshot is we have no clue what voters are going to do based on what they say they are going to do.

The best indicator I ever heard of as to how people are going to vote was developed by (I think) Gallop Poll. They ask a bunch of school kids to vote and their votes tally pretty close to what the adults will do in a month or so. Which indicates we might be able to lower the voting age to 10 years old and it might not make a whit of difference in the elections.

Ice cream and candy, anyone?

In the next corner we put politicians.

Their objective is to say something that will both separate themselves from the other candidates and get them elected. The only promises we can be pretty sure they will keep are the ones that they believe will get them re-elected. Those will be saved, and fought for, somewhere near the end of their term. But wait, four years have passed. The issues they can fight for, and will get them re-elected probably will not be the same issues that got them elected the first time.

They are also subject to changing their viewpoints. Not just because of sudden changes of heart, but because when you are in a different position your perspective is different. Things that seemed simple and obvious when you were a candidate might not make much sense when you are elected. They might even cause more problems than they would solve. To make it worse trying to explain to the voters that you are not betraying them – You are seeing the light of day – Might be a lot worse than simply not keeping that particular promise.

Because the discussion included the Supreme Court and appointments to it, we will stick potential Supreme Court nominees in the third corner.

There are people who want to become Supreme Court Justices. Others do not. Usually those who do not can simply decline. But those who do will be watching the elections, and the candidates, very carefully. Now if they really want to become Supreme Court Justices, they will whatever it takes to become one. That means making the legal decisions that would be approved of by the elected candidate. Not necessarily the ones they believe are right.

After all once they are appointed they can make whatever decisions they want.

It has all ready happened that at least one Supreme Court Justice did the exact opposite of what everyone expected him to do.

So far we do not know what the people are going to do based on what they say, we do not know what the candidates are going to do based on what they promise, and we do not know what the future Justices are going to do based on their past performance.

So in the fourth corner we are going to stick “Change of Venue” for lack of a better term.

Political Ideology:

A liberal from the 1950’s would not recognize a liberal from today. Back then the liberals were closer to the laissez-faire and the libertarians than the liberals of today. Conservatives were more liberal than many of today’s liberals.

Political Parties:

Political Parties not only change – They completely reverse.

Abraham Lincoln who signed the Emancipation Proclamation was a Republican. The Democrats of his time were pro-slavery, dedicated to the proposition it was the “Will of God” and the “justification of slavery of black people” with the, “Sons of Ham” argument. If you are not familiar with the “Sons of Ham” argument here is a New York Time’s article to help clear it up.

Somewhere along the line Lincoln’s Republicans became Roosevelt’s Democrats.

All we really know about the future of Democrats / Republicans and Conservatives / Liberals is that definitions and positions will probably change.

Once appointed Supreme Court Justices tend to remain there for a long time. But one question that comes to mind is this: Will they remain the same in their ideology as they are now? Or will they change as the ideology changes? Or as their chosen party changes? Or something else.

In the middle of this map let’s put a big circle for what I call the WTF section. Samples of things from the past of events that have thrown everything people thought was important out the window – Even before windows wore a pane of glass.

At one time every little village had issues it thought were important. Of ultimate importance. The world at large had no clue that one little obscure village had discovered that horses were not a food but a vehicle. Until then people ate horses. Once used as vehicles that could be ridden into battle the world was never the same. The people who first witnessed them thought they saw horses with the upper bodies of men. The mythical creatures we call Centaurs. Every aspect of human life was changed forever.

People in Europe thought many many things were of great and lasting importance. Oooops, here comes Genghis Khan. Ooops, here comes Hannibal. Double ooops, here comes the black plague.

But not everything that changes the world is so dramatic. Socrates and Aristotle. Magellan quietly sailing around the world. Jesus. Mohammed. Copernicus. This is only a tiny list.

People thought Hitler was important and of lasting importance, but history tends to show those who attempt to dominate the world become mere footnotes in history, with Alexander the Great being the notable exception. Oddly violent episodes in history do not seem to carry much weight into the future, except possibly in the countries where they had the greatest effect. Cortez venture into Mexico, the Inquisition. The French revolution. To name a few. You almost have to be a history buff in order to even be aware some of these events and people existed.

The two people who were in Germany while Hitler was becoming what everyone thought was The Big Important Thing who HAVE actually changed life as it was known at the time were – and have irrevocably altered Human Future – Werner Von Braun and Einstein. Two people who pretty obscure at the time. Certainly not common talk at the dinner table.

Werner Von Braun gave us rocketry (Yes, I am aware of Goddard) which led directly to the Star Trek series.

Einstein gave us Relativity which led directly to Quantum science – Which, by the way, Einstein did NOT like, calling it “spooky” – and gave us the GPS system and an understanding of how plants change sunlight into chlorophyll.

So we look at this map with its five little circles, each filled with uncertainty, and with amazing potential, enough for a thousand Science Fiction Writers to play with, and we are asked to find a single accurate prediction about the future. And the only accurate prediction that can be made is that each minute into the future, each hour, each day, week, month, year, makes what is going to happen less and less predictable. Because we can’t really know what, or who, is really important until after the fact. Sometimes long after the fact.

So I submit my answer as being eminently reasonable. You can speculate about the potential future and the possible past all you want to — But:

“The answer to everything is in the event that happens. If it has not yet happened, or if it never happens, then there is no answer.”

© 2016 by Michael Berryman, all rights reserved.

Pick Your Words Wisely

3 Apr

Pick your words wisely.

MeHave you ever been told you should improve your grammar?

Should you?

Have you ever been told you should increase your vocabulary?

Should you?

Have you ever been told you will get more respect, earn more money, or move “up” in the world if you do these things?

Will you?

Have you ever been told the grammar you worked so hard to learn is sexist, racist, or has some other socially unacceptable fault that you should not do or use?

Should you?

Have you ever been told the new words you so painfully learned were pretentious and you should avoid them in favor of simpler words?

Nothing can be more confusing than language, called linguistics by those who confuse themselves (and everyone else) as they try to untangle the Gordian Knot of language and meaning. Yet there are some simple, easy to follow rules, that allow YOU to decide how YOU should use the language you were born to. 

And help you decide if you should even look at these articles on how to better yourself through language, grammar, etc. 

These articles have mostly been written by people who use language a certain way. The people they hang around use language the same way. And they believe everyone else should emulate them and use language the same way they do.

Have no fear:

I am the guy who seasons sweet potatoes with pico de gallo, puts a spoonful of curry powder in my orange juice, and flavors his water with a jigger of Balsamic vinegar. While I firmly believe there are other people in the world who do those things I can guarantee they are not for everyone. I will never ask anyone to emulate me.

Here is a simple guide to help you through the often confusing morass of verbal shoulds and shouldn’ts of everyday, and even formal, language. One designed for who you are.

Hello. I am the Map Thinker ™ I have not contributed to this blog in while for two reasons. One is I have a lot of projects going on. The other is I am planing on writing books aimed at a wider audience and publishing them at

I’m writing this blog because one of my favorite granddaughters, who is both smarter and better educated than I am got me to thinking about the subject.

Lets get started. I think using Mapological ™ reasoning and I recommend it to everyone else.

Lets build a Map. Every good map has three things. Potential starting points, potential objectives, and various routes between them.

The starting point for this map is easy. We start at the beginning. We start with the very first thing language accomplishes. Many people who are not into linguistics are surprised at this but it is true. And important. Other people realize it but never really thought about it.

The first thing language does is classify YOU.

It does not matter what the subject is you are talking about. It does not matter what your opinion is ON the subject. What matters is how the person listening feels about the group of people you belong to and/or with. And how the listener feels about that group of people. Some people, I am one, find people who are different interesting and immediately want to know more about them. (On the other hand I am quickly bored by people who spout the same opinion I’ve heard 400 times before.) Other people are only comfortable with people from their own group, their own circle, their own kind. And some people who would be horrified at the very concept of racism or sexism will have extremely negative reactions to entire groups of people. They often justify these prejudices based on “choice”. Proclaiming “You can’t choose your sexual orientation or your race but people who _______ (Fill in the blank) chose to be what they are.”

Common groups of disrespected people include, but are not limited too, poor people, bikers, cowboys, red necks, field hands, bankers, lawyers, politicians, physicians, southerners, yankees, Californians, law enforcement personnel, and the beat goes on.

From this it should be easy to see it doesn’t matter who you are, how you speak, or how you write – You WILL be criticized. The only choice you have is who gets to criticize you.

You will be judged.

Once we realize this is the start of our discussion, and this HAS to be the start of our discussion, we can start to draw our map.

When you have a starting point, and now we do, we can choose where on the map we want to go and how we want to get there. This requires making decisions. Two in this case.

What group do you identify with?

What group might you aspire to? If any?

Most articles aimed at telling you to improve, or change, your vocabulary, your grammatical style, or your speaking habits, are probably not aimed at you unless you are pushing your way up the corporate ladder. If you are then let me suggest you not only spend time mastering the art of speaking like the corporate executives in your company – You run out right NOW and take a good course in etiquette. The closer you get to the over culture the more important it is to know not to pick your nose with the salad fork.

Being judged like this may seem like a drawback, but it has some benefits.

Because many people do not choose to associate with those who are really different linguistically than themselves, you can thin out some of your unwanted unfriends and associates.

The example I will use are the two polar opposites. The cuss-a-holic and the devout-a-holic.

Suppose you know someone who is constantly exposing the most vulgar aspects of their thoughts in front of you. You do not have to be religious. Just start explaining to them how God feels about their behavior. Usually they will quit coming around you. It also works the other way. If someone is constantly in your face with religion salt and pepper your language with as many vulgarities as you may know. Most will quit coming around you.

If you belong to a group you are accepted by and that you like – Believe it or not most people are – Then you don’t need to do a damn thing to change the way you talk. In fact if you do you might alienate the very group you identify with the most.

If Y’all say Y’all why should you change just because you are in a place that says us’ens and we’ens, or youse guys?

Usually, for most people, the best thing to do with their language is nothing. Unless you aspire to join, and become accepted by, another group as part of that group. The only people who have to constantly keep up on it are academics and corporate climbers.

However you might want to belong to more than one group.

I once knew a banker who was a cowboy at home. He owned a horse ranch. And on weekends he was a biker whose scoot was a panhead. A layman might say he literally spoke three different languages. A linguist would say he used three different registers, one for each group. All it means is that when he rode his Harley he did not sound like a banker or a cowboy. When he was in the bank he sounded like a banker and when he was on the ranch he sounded like a cowboy.

In those days I would never have met the big shot banker, or the owner of the ranch, but I knew the biker dude. He was cool.

Sometimes two groups use the same words but mean entirely different things. When a biker asks me how my Ole Lady is I react one way. In biker culture “Ole Lady” is a sign of respect. When a citizen asks me how my old lady is I tell them “I don’t have an old lady. I have a wife.”

Few people want to be so diverse. And it comes with a risk. While some people admired his versatility others thought of him as a fake and a fraud. They applied the, “You can only belong to one group and be real,” rule.

As I say I do not recommend my way of dealing with people who criticize my language. I simply tell them, “If you don’t like the way I talk don’t listen to me. Nobody else does, why should you?”

So now you have a map. You can be happy with where you live or you can pick out a destination and head that way. If you do I hope you are happy wherever you end up.

© 2016 by Michael Berryman, All Rights Reserved.

Meta Concepts Equal Thought

25 May

Cogito ergo sum: Decartes wrote: I think, therefore I am.

This has inspired some conjecture on the nature of thought. Here we will not concern ourselves with what thought is, we will concern ourselves with what precedes thought.
I would change that: I am what I am capable of thinking.

I think like a human being, therefore I am a human being. A human being is able to think about concepts. Thinking is in fact metaconcepting. If I were to think like a dog I would to all intents and purposes be a dog. If I were to think like a whale I would almost certainly have to be a whale. There is no other way I could have a clue what concepts a whale has. Even the concept of hunger might be different for a creature who streams algae through its teeth.

Concepts precede thought.

You have the concept of hunger when you are hungry. If you have never been hungry the concept of hunger is difficult to conceive let alone think about. “Let them eat cake,” makes perfect sense to a little girl who has never had to go without anything.

A human can only think about those concepts it is A) aware of and B) willing to think about.

Thinking about concepts has survival value because what has survival value in one context may be dangerous in another. Creatures that cannot question their concepts find it far more difficult to adapt to new situations.

Once we accept that all concepts, including the concept of thinking about concepts, have survival value then the question becomes not “What is the concept” or “How do we define the concept” but “What survival value does the concept serve and how does it serve it?”

What survival value does the concept of a hammer serve?
How does it serve this survival value?

What survival value does the concept of evil serve?
How does it serve this survival value?

We need a metaconcept. A concept of concepts.

In order to examine this metaconcept full spectrum I choose to deal with what is currently a very controversial subject: Homosexuality.

On the surface GLBT behavior is counter survival.

Think about it: There are just under 57 million miles of land mass on the Earth. If there are only a couple of thousand people on the Earth, and they only live to be 25 years old top end, then everybody has to pitch in and do their heterosexual best to procreate.


But wait a minute: Now days there are over 7 billion people on the Earth and still have less than 57 million miles of land mass for them to live on. At 640 square acres to a square mile that is 36.5 billion square acres. Each person can get about 5 acres to live on.
Did I say wait a minute?
That person doesn’t just get to live on that 5 acres. It has to produce enough food for them to live on. That might be okay if all the land were arable. But it is not. Only about 7.7 billion acres are arable land. In order for each on those 7 billion people to have 1.3 acre each of food producing land we have to move them all into non-arable land. About 52 million square miles are habitable. If you want to get into this you might start your search at

To sum up: At some point homosexuality is not only natural it is the most effective sexual survival concept in an over populated world, or over populated part of the world. At some point heterosexual behavior is counter survival behavior when it comes to protecting the human species.



© 2014 All Rights Reserved

Survival and Concepts

17 May

1> No creature is capable of having a concept that is not directly related to survival.
A> In order to understand any concept a creature may or may not have one must relate it directly to its survival value.

2> Survival value falls into the following progression:
A> Survival of the individual.
B> Survival of the species the individual belongs too.
C> Survival of the overall ecology, or life itself.

A> Instinct for the survival of the individual needs no defense. It is so widely held a belief that it needs refutation, if possible.
In fact when we see instances of individuals of any species acting against its own survival most people are at a loss for any possible explanation except “aberration” or “insanity”.
Yet it has been scientifically demonstrated in several species this is not at all true.

B> It has been demonstrated in scientific studies that the instinct to save the species will override the instinct for self-preservation when certain criteria are met.
Rats, deer, and fowl, have all been studied in situations where overpopulation has become a serious problem. The study of deer, I am convinced, took place on Three Mile Island, but whether before or after the radiation incident I fail to remember.
Each species demonstrates traits similar to humans in large, overcrowded cities. From displays of hypertension to dysfunctional sexual activity, suicide, and murder.
Survival of the species overrides survival of the individual.

Survival of the Ecology over survival of the species is a little harder to demonstrate, but there is evidence, and that evidence begins with humans.
For our purposes we will define humanity as that species which has the most versatile set of concepts known to exist. No other species has yet been demonstrated to have as wide a variety of useful survival concepts as we have.
The concept of ecology over benefit to the species, in this case humanity, has come to the fore lately, but it has been around much longer.
When I was a child white people openly bragged about how they had come to American and tamed it. Made their mark. Changed the land and controlled it. While those ignorant savages, the Indians, had lived here for thousands of years and never made a single mark upon the land. It was as if they had never existed. White people then pointed to the cities, the skyscrapers, the roads, etc as proof they had civilized the land.
Nowadays most people take the reverse position. They see the Native American Indians as having lived in harmony with the land while the influx of Europeans defiled it.


Our concepts are changing because just as survival of the species trumps survival of the individual, survival of the ecology trumps survival of the species.

© All Rights Reserved

Concepts and Survival

27 Apr

This can get a bit abstract.

If you don’t believe in evolution it is hard to discern its survival value.

If you do believe in evolution it is still a bit difficult to follow.

Here it is.

If evolution is a fact of the universe then we humans cannot possibly be the pinnacle of it.

We can only be the last step we have encountered — At best.

Unless you are irrational, and note I did not say anything about intelligence. Many very intelligent people are irrational. If you don’t believe me check out the number of Mensa members in prison.
You would think a person that smart would either not commit crimes or be smart enough to only choose those to do those they could get away with.

Not so.

Highly intelligent people believe things that are highly irrational all the time. A good place to start would be with Aristotle. He believed things about Women and Deaf People that no one could possibly accept today. Things he could easily have discovered were wrong at the time, such as the number of teeth a woman has.

If you believe in evolution you HAVE to accept at the very least that it is possible humans are the next step in evolution, not the last step.

As species have evolved so have their concepts.

Many people consider the praying mantis as evil. She turns her head around and eats her mate while he is impregnating her. Many people consider rats vile because they eat their own, and other rats, turds.

Yet it is difficult to conceive of the mantis as having any other concept than an overwhelming desire to eat the thing upon her back. And it is just as difficult to conceive of the rat as having any other concept than a desire to eat the turd it finds in its path.

I am unaware of the survival value of a mantis eating its mate. But the survival value of a rat eating rat turds has been demonstrated. They provide nutrients the rat desperately needs but cannot get any other way.

Concepts change according to the needs and abilities of the species or subspecies involved.

The dodo did not change its concept of complete safety fast enough to save its species from the predatory humans. The humans in their joy of killing easy prey did not change their concept from hunter to farmer in time to save the dodo as a unique and viable farm animal in time to save the species. Perhaps because of their profession. They were sailors. Farmers would have instantly seen the potential and the military mind, ever alert that an army travels on its stomach, would have been very apt to have seen the potential of the dodo as a tame food source that should be protected.

I submit that every concept every creature has survival value. Species change their concepts as they are able too when the old concepts cease to have survival value and new ones are needed.

One notable example are otters. They were originally monogamous. When hunted to virtual extinction they became polygamous. This is not a simple evolutionary adaptation in form, it is an evolutionary concept in concept.

The evolution of humanity has been more in the evolution of its concepts than in its physical form.
© 2014 All rights Reserved

Manipulating Concepts

20 Apr

Let us draw a Concept Line™ for manipulating concepts.

At the far end we start with imagination. Without the use of imagination no manipulation of any concept is possible. It is possible, without words or questions, to manipulate a concept. To prove this we picture clouds in our mind. Clouds are a concept. Now we add wind. Wind is also a concept. Allow the wind to freely blow the clouds around that you have in your mind. Or if you prefer you can picture a stream. Allow your mind to freely picture birds, fish, or anything else to intrude upon your stream.

A unicorn perhaps.

Once we add imagination we next need the most useful ingredient of imagination. Play. Without a sense of play, humor, and fun, imagination is useless.

We start with sensory experience.
Sensory experience becomes memory.
Imagination is the ability to manipulate memory.

You can recall an experience as emotional, visual, auditory, etc as accurately as possible.

You can subtract from the remembered experience.
For example you can remember a physically or emotionally painful experience and cut yourself off from feeling (reliving) the actual pain.
You can picture a house with no walls, only a roof to give shade even if you have never seen such a thing.
You can picture a city with no people. You can picture a pigmy horse.

You can add to remembered experience.
You can picture a bean stalk a thousand foot tall. You can look at a puddle and conceive of an ocean even if you have never seen or heard of one. You can imagine a giant.

You can combine remembered experiences.

That which you perceive of reality is your raw material.
Your imagination is the tool whereby you can manipulate, explore, and understand the material you have gained.
The only limits too your manipulation of this material are those things you believe to be true and explore no further. Even if what you believe to be true is true, you are still limiting yourself if you do not question it. You thus prevent yourself from discovering any deeper truths it may contain.

A true Map Thinker™ rejects all limits to thinking freely.
© 2014 All Rights Reserved

The Evolution on Concepts

6 Apr

The concept of a claw hammer did not just pop into the human mind from out of non-existence.

First was the concept of a rock.

Somewhere someone realized you could pound with a rock. Perhaps this person broke nuts open with a rock.
The first stage of the concept of a hammer was born.

Somewhere someone threw a rock at something. Perhaps it was a nut in a tree. Trying to knock it down.
The first stage of the concept of a rocket was born.

Somewhere someone used a stick. Perhaps it was to dig beetles out of the ground.
The first stages of the concept of a fork and a spear were born.

Somewhere someone put a rock on the end of a stick.
The second stage of the concept of a hammer was born.

Just as humanity evolved as a species so did humanities concepts.

And here is a crucial fact:
Every concept humanity has ever developed has survival value.
I have never found a single concept that did not have survival value at the time it was conceived. Some of those concepts have had counter survival value when circumstances changed and select humans refused to revise their concepts. But every human concept has survival value in the right circumstances.

I state that concepts evolve.
This is easily demonstrated. Scientific concepts show a clear path of evolution.

Other creatures also have concepts.
Look at dogs and cats. They both have a concept of what is food and what is not food. They share a concept of humanity as a source of food and shelter.
Obviously there was a time when humans were not sources of food and shelter for either dogs or cats. At that time dogs and cats would not have this concept of humans. This concept had to grow over time.
This simple demonstration shows not only that animals do have concepts but also shows that their concepts also evolve.
In this we are not alone.

We can look at a bug as having a concept of what food is. Of what a predator is. In the case of ants and bees they must have some concept of home and community. Perhaps nothing like we humans have, but something that suffices.

It can be said that certain plants, those that turn their leaves or flowers toward the sun as it passes, have some rudimentary concept of pleasure if nothing else. It might be nothing more than warmth.

Each creature has exactly the number, or set (if you will) of concepts that it needs to survive.

The Concept Line™ starts at the vaguest sensory awareness.
A plant has, through warmth, light, or some other means, a sensory awareness of the sun. We know this because so many plants visibly react to the sun.
Whether the plant has any sensory memory of the sun when it is not present is something we cannot determine with any current or proposed technology I am aware of. However it has been demonstrated that plants discharge measurable energy when in the presence of someone who has abused them, say torn off their limbs.
Thus we can contend that plants have a rudimentary concept of pain and pleasure.

Moving along the concept line we can show that insects have a rudimentary concept of food and predator.
We know this simply because any bug will go after that which it considers food, be it a leaf or another bug, and will avoid, and or fight, those things that will in turn eat them.

Many fish live in schools. Some insects live in hives. This indicates a rudimentary sense of community.
Primates go so far as to show complex social structure and even politics.

Humanities concepts have not only evolved, but can be traced through anthropology.

Even more interestingly the human evolution of concepts can be demonstrated in its children. A baby has the most minimum concepts possible for a human being to have. As the child develops physical abilities and experience more concepts develop. For example babies are not born with depth perception, it develops later, and even then it takes time and experience for a child to judge exactly how far away an object is. Then even more time to judge how much time it will take the object, say a car, to reach them at a given speed.

However having a concept is not sufficient.

In fact having a concept, in and of itself, is only a survival mechanism only up to a point in the evolutionary ladder.
At some point what is done with concepts is more important than having concepts.

Socrates said “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
I say the unexamined concept is not worth having.

So at the far end of our Concept Line™ , not at the very end, we mark a point at which concepts are not simply held, they are manipulated.



© 2014 All Rights Reserved











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